I design flags that each acts as a symbol for the RISD Graphic Design Department.
The goal was to create 5 new compositions using the 25 studies as a kit.
10" × 10". Black, white, and 1 color. Each composition should be based on
one of the following gestalt principles of perceptual organization:
Designer Accordion Book
Designer accordion book is about the designer Ladislav Sutnar with two written essays,
designed for History of Graphic Design.
Born in Pilzen, Czechoslovakia in 1897, Ladislav Sutnar is recognized for a pioneer of information design, which helped the development of design for the public good. He studied at the Academy of Applied Arts in Prague, and began his career as a painter. But his interest in fundamental design concepts soon led him to a broader scope of activity. His work was strongly influenced by the Bauhaus, whose graphic design movement he claimed to have started.
As Sutnar grew up, he was influenced by the war-time generation. Because people found out that it was time to build more sensible and more lasting values for a better future once the war was over. The war in fact intensified and expedited the change of sensibility taking place already during the first decade of the new century, staring of something entirely new from nineteen centuries. "New" became a signifier of all things associated with culture and civilization, which now characterized by sobriety, lack of pomp, objectivity and economy. The birth of an independent Czechoslovakia in the fall of 1918 became a milestone even for Sutnar. World increased activities in publishing books and magazines to satisfy growing enthusiasm for learning and the desire to seek new cultural values. After the war, Ladislav, while in the army, applied for a study leave in the fall and finished a semester of freshmen studies in architecture. However, later it became Sutnar's other main field. His utilization of time and space concepts and vision of the greater whole in all activities became a personal trait of his in the future career.
In 1919, he studied at the School of Applied Arts in a special graphic arts and painting curriculum. He became familiar with some specific traditions of modern Czech art. Sutnar first was also influenced by the expressionist and Cubist periods, but soon, from beginning of 1920's, he began to explore studying a spare and geometric form. In Bauhaus, Sutnar focuses on simplicity, pure form and perfect functionality in accordance with the principles of the New Objectivity. The method of his geometrical articulation of surfaces and of emphasizing information achieved from the typography of the Bauhaus clearly shows in Sutnar's future works.
Sutnar came to the United States to design the exhibition for Czechoslovakia at the New York World Fair in 1939. Due to its cancellation, he decided to settle in New York leaving from Prague as Nazi control continued there. In here, he designed one of the most efficient graphic devices, parentheses, also called the Bell system, around American telephone area code numbers. Although people thought it was impractical, he understood the need to control and organize the excessive of information that was fast growing in contemporary life. Soon for next few years later, these simple marks made millions of American phone users' lives easier.
Although Sutnar was not known for making the parentheses in phone numbers, because he felt that it was the design that needed to be recognized and used efficiently, not graphic designers, the parentheses were among his signature devices used to highlight various information. After designing parentheses, Sutnar actively developed various grid and tab system, such as commas, colons and exclamation points, into linguistic traffic signs by enlarging and repeating them in a manner similar to that of 1920s Constructivist typography. In addition, he was one of the first designers who used double spreads of paper instead of using just one page, which allowed users to go through seas of data efficiently.
Like Jan Tschichold, Sutnar synthesised European avant-gardisms, which he described "provided the base for further extension of new design vocabulary and new design means," into a functional commercial lexicon that avoided 'formalistic rules or art for art's sake. 'He made Constructivism playful and used geometry to create the dynamics of organisation,' says Noel Martin, who was a young designer in the 1950s was a member of Sutnar's small circle of friends. Despite a strict belief in absolute rightness of geometric form, Sutnar played variety within his designs to avoid standardising his clients' different messages. Sutnar kept the consistency of type and colour choices and layout preferences, but within these conditions, a variety of options existed for different kinds of projects. Although, because of his strict and definite design principle, Sutnar had several conflicts with clients, he was firm that his design was efficient and productive.
Sutnar highly regarded the efficient communication of design. His difficulties with spoken English as a second language explain why his design was so straightforward and efficient. So if verbal or written language could not mediate information easily, then he reasoned that the visual language needed to be more direct. One of the his favorite comments was that "the jet plane pilot cannot read his instrument panel fast enough to survive without efficient typography.” Like his statement, Sutnar created information graphics and catalog layouts for a wide range of manufactured items.
Poster and essay for Coporate Identity for Canadian National Railways by Allan Fleming
Coporate Identity for Canadian National Railways by Allan Fleming
Canadian National Railways(CN), a national corporation established in 1919, is constructed and managed the longest railway system in North America. The company is also well known for going through profound transformations in Canadian business history. By 1959, CN improved the system, improving on training programs and facilities for employees, and started other businesses other than railways such as hotels, telecommunications and ferry services. Despite CN's improvements and success, when CN studied on 4000 adult Canadians' attitude towards CN, the survey indicated that Canadians recognized CN as old-fashioned and hostile to changes, which was the very opposite of what the company was seeking for, because the logo contained the ubiquitous symbols like animals and maple leaf.
Realizing that the outdated image of its company was making their outcomes meaningless, CN commissioned a designer Jim Valkus to solve the problem. He convinced the company to run corporate design program, not just trademark program. Knowing that management of CN is progressive, Valkus ran contemporary program. He suggested changes in uniforms, station interiors, and all the rolling stock. James Valkus then hired and subcontracted Alan Fleming for redesigning logo for Canadian National Railways, which now is Fleming's most known for. Fleming was known for Canada's the foremost graphic designer during that time period and had dealt with national and political designed successfully. Fleming dramatically improved Canadian National Railways' original trademark "CNR", stands for Canadian National Railways, inscribed on the cliche maple leaf symbol. Dropping the "R" from the original logo "CNR", Fleming emphasized diversified businesses that the company was also running. Keeping away from using literal symbols, he removed the maple leaf symbol and combined the "C" and the "N" in minimal and harmonious way with delicate and bold continuous red line.
After the trademark was made, the changes had begun. CN did not just fix the logo, but made it accessible to every visual items used: replacing more than two hundred old tickets with nine new ticket forms, and inscribing the trademark on details such as matchbooks, sugar bags, and soap wrappers. Illustrating the consistency for the corporate identity, the designers tried to make every different part of working groups recognizable as CN while keeping its individual character.
Fleming described the logo as "the movement of people, materials, and messaged from one point to another." The logo indicates all the values of the company right to the point. Its wide and flowing curvature gives one the impression of the subtle and heavy turn of its railway and the trains right away. The redesign for CN' s logo was also timely, because CN's railways were transitioning from steam- to diesel-powered engines. The modern look of the trademark not only influenced the perspective of people but also demonstrated the essential values of CN. The Corporate identity of Canadian National Railways, redesigned by Allan Fleming in 1960, is recognized for building Canada's one of the most innovative and longest-lived trademark. CN was able to alter ornate and busy logo with harmonious and minimized symbol. It developed the company's public image enormously at that time period and now marked as significant history for the corporate identity because the logo is still in use and mostly recognized today in Canada.
This book was an exploration of 24 typefaces with
different weight, size, and leading.
The Living Torrents
Collaborated with Chris Lo, I designed the poster
for the exhibition, "The Living Torrents"
Featured on RISD Museum
The task was to make a new useless version of any chosen utilitarian format.
I designed Seoul Metro map to wiggle responding to rush hours.